Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower – A Fascinating organ of Angiosperm

Flowers are objects of aesthetic, ornamental, social, religious and cultural value, they have always been used as symbol for conveying important human feelings. To a biologist, flowers are morphological and embryological wonder and the sites of sexual reproduction. Flower is a modified shoot which functions as reproductive organ and produces male and female gametes.

Structure of the flower:

The flower is the reproductive unit in the angiosperms. A flower is a modified condensed shoot specialized to carry out sexual reproduction. A typical flower has four different kinds of whorls arranged successively on the swollen end of the stalk or pedicel, called thalamus or receptacle. These are calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium. Calyx and corolla are accessory organs. While and androecium and gynoecium are reproductive organs.

  1. Calyx – This is the outermost whorl of flower. The individual leaf of calyx is known as sepal. The sepal are essentially green. Usually calyx protect the other floral parts in bud condition.
  2. Corolla – This is the second whorl of flower. The individual leaf of corolla is known as petal. Petals are colored and sometimes fragrant which make flower to become attractive. Usually corolla attract the insect and help in pollination.
  3. Androecium – This is the third whorl of flower. The individual member of androecium is known as stamen. It is male reproductive organ. Each stamen consists of anther and filament. Usually anther is bi-lobed and contain four microsporangia but sometime they have only one lobe and two microsporangia.
  4. Gynoecium – This is the fourth and last whorl of flower. It is also known as pistil. The individual member of gynoecium is known as carpel. It is female reproductive organ. It consists of three distinct part – style, stigma and ovary.

Chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants


Dharmendra Gaur

Dharmendra Gaur (Msc. Zoology) aka DRGP. I love to learn and teach biology. By this blog I want to increase my knowledge and share my knowledge with others. Feel free to ask what ever you want to ask related to biology, I try my best to help you.

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